小学英语重难点知识汇总(收藏)

发布时间:2018-05-25 14:49信息来源:

An elephant is bigger than a tiger. (一只大象比一只老虎更大.)

 

形容词的比较级是在形容词的基础上变化而来的,它的变化规则是:

 

一般的直接在词尾加er , tall - taller , strong - stronger ,

 

e结尾的,直接加r , fine – finer ,

 

以辅音字母加y结尾的,先改yi再加er,funny - funnier

 

双写最后的字母再加er,big – bigger, thin – thinner ,hot – hotter

 

注意

 

比较的两者应该是互相对应的可比较的东西.

 

典型错误:My hair is longer than you.(我的头发比你更长.)

 

比较的两者是我的头发,(整个人),那么比较的对象就没有可比性.

 

应该改为:My hair is longer than yours. My hair is longer than your hair.

 

:动词过去式

 

动词的过去式的构成规则有:

 

A,规则动词

 

一般直接在动词的后面加ed: worked , learned , cleaned , visited

 

e结尾的动词直接加d: lived , danced , used

 

以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改yi再加ed(此类动词较少) study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play,stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)

 

双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少) stopped

 

B,不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate , see – saw , have – had , do – did , go - went , take - took , buy - bought , get - got , read - read ,fly - flew , am/is - was ,

 

are - were , say - said , leave - left , swim - swam , tell - told , draw - drew , come - came , lose - lost , find - found , drink - drank , hurt - hurt , feel - felt

 

:动词现在分词详解

 

一般的直接在后面加上ing , doing , going , working , singing , eating

 

e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,having , writing

 

双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少):running , swimming , sitting , getting

 

五、人称代词主格及宾格

 

人称代词分为主格和宾格,主格和宾格区别:主格和宾格汉语意思相同,但位置不同。

 

Eg:I(主格)""-- me (宾格)""

 

主格在陈述句中通常放句首,宾格通常放在动词后或介词后,也就是说宾格,不放在句首。

 

Eg :I have a new car.( I 主格)

 

Excuse me (me 宾格)

 

I ask him to go (him 宾格)

 

They sit in front of me (me 宾格)

 

主格(8)I you he she it we 我们you 你们they(她、它)

 

宾格(8)me you him her it us我们 you你们 them(她、它)

 

:句型专项归类

 

1.肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,

 

:I'm a student.

 

She is a doctor.

 

He works in a hospital.

 

There are four fans in our classroom.

 

2,否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,

 

:I'm not a student.

 

He does not (doesn't) work in a hospital.

 

There are not (aren't) four fans in our classroom.

 

注意小结:

 

否定句主要是在肯定句的基础上加上了否定词 "not".有动词be的句子则"not"加在be后面,可缩写成"isn't,aren't",am not 一般都分开写.没有动词be的句子则要先在主要动词的前面加上一个助动词(do,does,did),然后在它后面加上"not",你也可以把它们缩写在一起如"don't , doesn't , didn't ).这三个助动词要根据人称和时态来选择,其中"does"只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,"did"只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用"did" .

 

3,一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用"yes","no"来回答.

 

:Are you a student Yes, I am No, I'm not.

 

Is she a doctor Yes, she is. No, she isn't.

 

Does he work in a hospital Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

 

Did you watch TV yesterday evening? Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.

 

注意小结:

 

一般疑问句是在肯定句的基础上,

 

把动词be调到首位,其他照写,末尾标点符号变成问号即可.

 

没有动词be的句子则要在句首加上一个助动词(do,does,did)再把紧跟在后面的动词变回原形,末尾标点符号变成问号即可.

 

这三个助动词也要根据人称和时态来选择,其中"does"只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,"did"只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用"did" .一般疑问句有个重要的原则就是问和答要一致,即问句里的第一个单词(助动词)和简略答句里的这个词是一致的.

 

4,特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how)开头引导的句子.此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用"yes ,no"来回答.:

 

What is this

 

Where are you going

 

Who played football with you yesterday afternoon

 

When do you usually get up

 

Why do you like spring best

 

How are you

 

注意小结:

 

其中how又可以和其他一些形容词连用组成特殊疑问词组用来提问,: how many(多少(数量)), how much(多少()), how tall(多高), how long(多长), how big(多大), how heavy(多重)

 

例句:How many pencils do you have

 

How many girls can you see

 

how many 用来提问可数名词的数量,主要有以上三种搭配,

 

How many + 名词复数 + do you have 你有多少……

 

How many + 名词复数 + can you see 你能看见多少……

 

How many + 名词复数 + are there… 有多少……

 

:完全,缩略形式

 

1、简缩形式的变法:把倒数第二个字母,通常是元音字母变成' are除外,are要把a打成' Eg:he is=he's they are=they're

 

2、简缩形式和完全形式的汉语意思相同。

 

3、把完全形式变成简缩形式时,一定要注意第一个字母的大小变化。Eg:What is =What's

 

4、记住一个特殊变化;let's =let us 让我们(不要把' 变成i)

 

5、记住:this is 没有简缩形式this's(错误)

 

6.常见的缩略形式:

 

I'm=I am he's=he is she's=she is

 

they're=they are you're=you are

 

there's=there is they're=they are

 

can't=can not don't=do not

 

doesn't=does not isn't=is not

 

aren't=are not let's=let us

 

won't=will not I'll=I will

 

wasn't=was not

 

END -

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-05-25 06:00 来源:搜狐教育

 

一、语法易错点

 

1. a, an的选择: 元音字母开头的单词用an,辅音字母开头的单词用a.

 

2. am , is , are的选择: 单数用is , 复数用are. I am , you are.

 

3. have , has 的选择: 表示某人有某物.单数用has , 复数用have. I ,you have .

 

4. there is, there are 的选择:表示某地有某物,某人.单数用there is , 复数用there are.

 

5. some, any 的选择:肯定句用some, 疑问句和否定句用any.

 

6. 疑问词的选择:what (什么) who () where (哪里) whose (谁的) why(为什么)when(什么时候)which(哪一个)how old (多大) how many (多少)how much(多少钱)

 

:形容词比较级

 

当我们需要对事物作出比较时,需要用到比较级.比较级的句子结构通常是:

 

什么 + 动词be (am , is , are ) + 形容词比较级 + than()+ 什么 ,:

 

I'm taller and heavier than you. (我比你更高和更重.)

 

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